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Taking Good Care of the Kidneys

Our body is made up of two kidneys, located left and right, which are responsible for reabsorption of nutrients, removal of toxins, and filtration of substances that enter the body. Meaning, they play a vital role in making sure that our body is full of nutrients but free of toxins. Today, we have definitely have heard and are familiar with dialysis, a last option treatment procedure for individuals who have kidney or renal diseases.

With that in regard, a lot of you are already curious about the things that you can do so that you can keep your kidneys healthy or functional. If you are not yet convinced about the importance of keeping a healthy kidney, let us tell you that once the kidneys are damaged, it is irreversible or can only be resolved through kidney transplant since dialysis itself is just a process of cleansing the blood from toxins. Below, we have listed some ways on how you can take care of your kidneys before it is too late.

Proper Hydration

Drinking the right amount of water, which is usually six to eight glasses a day, is one of the best means to help the kidneys flush out toxins. That is according to physicians and to the National Kidney Foundation. Water is the universal solvent making it possible to dilute all compounds present in the kidneys. Such will also make you urinate more often which can maximize the natural cleansing activities of the body.

Consuming juice made from green plants like herbs, vegetables, and fruits are also a great way to cleanse the kidneys and the body as a whole. That is because these ingredients are rich in antioxidants. In addition, both water and green juices can help control your blood pressure and prevent diabetes which is known to be diseases that are a big threat to the kidneys.

Proper Diet

Eating the right kind of food is always something that people to consider. When it comes to maintaining the health of the kidneys, food that is recommended includes those that are rich in magnesium, potassium, ascorbic acid, and Vitamin B-complex but low in sodium and phosphorus. Examples of which are berries, apples, banana, oatmeal, garlic, onion, and mushroom.

Drinking Probiotics

Probiotics are marketed as products that help maintain the normal bacterial flora of the intestines. Little do we know that such is also the same with the kidneys since they also have a role in maintaining the health of the digestive system.

Using Dietary Supplements

Nowadays, you can already purchase a kidney health supplement at Amazon and other online retail stores. The popularity is owed to the fact that most of them are made from natural ingredients. Thus, if you are not a person who is not fond of eating the food we have mentioned above, as well as those that make green juices, then dietary supplements can help provide the necessary nutrients that the kidneys need. Nonetheless, this product cannot be used by people who already have kidney diseases.

Final Thoughts

Having a healthy pair of kidneys is something that should be considered by anyone. As can be seen from above, you can do it the natural way.

How to Outsmart Your Food Cravings

One minute you are convinced to refuse food cravings, the next thing, you just cannot resist it. Suppressing food cravings is one of the most challenging tasks for most dieters, especially those who love food so much. In fact, as the dieter’s number one enemy, losing weight is almost impossible. If you are currently trying to lose some weight by controlling your hunger, below are some tips on how to outsmart your cravings:

Tip #1: Drink a Lot of Water

Did you know that sometimes thirst can be confused with hunger? According to the experts, since thirst and hunger are both signaled at the hypothalamus, the confusion between the two sensations are evident. To determine whether you are hungry or thirsty, try drinking eight oz of water, then, wait for 15 minutes. If you find yourself still hungry, then, that means you are really hungry, otherwise, you are just thirsty.

Tip #2: Try avoiding what makes you hungry.

Although it is impossible, still, you have to try your best to avoid food that could entice your hunger. For instance, try not to access pages in social media that represent food. Also, try to avoid watching cooking shows, reading some food magazines, and more. If unavoidable, try chewing some gum. According to the experts, chewing gums are a big help in reducing cravings or appetite.

Tip #3: Never skip meal

Skipping meal is a bad idea. Even though your main goal is to reduce weight, you should never skip meals because it could only entice one of your “hunger hormones”, which is the ghrelin. This peptide hormone is responsible for increasing appetite. So, do not skip meals.

Tip #4: Try taking hunger suppressing supplements.

Did you know that you can suppress your food cravings? If there are supplements that can help increase weight and increase the appetite, there is also a fast-acting hunger suppressor supplement that is perfect for dieters – Vitamonk’s Hunger Smack. According to the expert, the supplement contains all natural and powerful ingredient such as Garcinia Cambogia, Chromium, and Potassium Hydrocitric Acid, which are found to be fast acting ingredients that help burn fats. You may buy this appetite suppressant supplement online.

Tip #5: Fight away stress

Stress is the most common cause of cravings; this condition is called “stress eating”. According to the experts, stress can increase the level of your cortisol in the blood; thus, it makes you gain weight.

Tip #6: Try what they call the “mindful eating”.

Mindful eating is a form of meditation that helps you recognize the real hunger. It helps you defy cravings no matter how strong the temptations are. In fact, several monks are using this technique, where it helps them resist temptation over several worldly materials, especially luxurious food. Also, it helps them live a simple life. Cravings are the worst enemy for dieters; however, it can be controlled with a strong will and with the help of the top ways on how to outsmart your cravings. Also, do not forget to take supplements that can help suppress your hunger all the time.

 

Important Compounds That Help Uric Acid Regulation

Gout or arthritis is a condition that can limit a person’s productivity since he or she cannot move properly. At times, the affected individual cannot even walk at all because of the pain and severe inflammation experienced. Medically speaking, the main cause of this condition is hyperuricemia or an increased level in the blood levels of uric acid, which is a breakdown product of purine or nucleic acid metabolism.

People who have hyperuricemia are required to take chemical-based medications that have been prescribed by their physicians. However, for those who want to go the natural route, they can include natural supplements in their diet. These supplements contain fruits or vegetables that contain certain compounds that are normally present in the body. Since they are incorporated in the supplement, the level of the substance will be increased; thus, enhancing the function.

With that in regard, before you even purchase a natural uric acid amazon supplement, you must evaluate the contents and identify it such will be helpful at some point. Listed below are the compounds that are important for uric acid regulation.

Protein, Digestive Enzymes, and Diuretics

Protein is a compound that is responsible for many bodily functions, especially cell synthesis. As we may have learned from our basic biology, cells are the building blocks of all tissues and organs in the body. Hence, production of new cells will ensure that all the organs in the body will function well. Digestbreak Downes, on the other hand, will help break down the elements that we introduce in our body making it possible for them break down uric acid crystals for easy elimination.

Diuretics, of course, are compounds that will increase your urine production which leads to the dilution of uric acid and frequent elimination via urination. One of the plants that contain such important substances is alfalfa in combination with spearmint.

Antioxidants

The liver is one of the most important organs that help eliminate toxic materials in the body or detoxify it. With that in regard, in the presence of healthy antioxidants, it will function more efficiently while maintaining the normal protein synthesis as well as protecting the cells in the body. Plants that are rich in natural antioxidants that not just maintain good liver health but also proper bile flow include turmeric, milk thistle, schizandra, dandelion, reishi mushroom, and artichoke.

Other fruits that contain a specific antioxidant called flavonoid include those that belong to the cherry, berry, and citrus families as well as green tea. What is more amazing about these plants is that besides the ones mentioned above, they also promote blood health and intestine maintenance.

Final Conclusion

Dietary supplements for uric acid regulation are becoming more popular because of the interest of many individuals in ensuring that they do not introduce too much chemicals in their body.

Nonetheless, people should still be careful when choosing one and make sure that it has ingredients that can promote the health of the three major organs responsible for detoxification namely kidneys, liver, and intestines. Additionally, they should also make sure that they have already consulted their physician especially if they are already taking medications.

The Dangers of “Skinny Fat”: the Top Reasons Why Thin People Should Gain Weight

Who does not want to be thin? However, being thin does not mean you are healthy and fit. In fact, according to several new studies, slim people can have deadly levels of hidden fat than those who are obese; these people are often referred as “skinny fat”. Several fashion magazines prefer their models thin – “the thinner they are, the better” – a stereotype that should be eradicated. However, millions of people around the globe are not very affectionate about gaining weight because of the misconception about health, obesity, and slim. What does “skinny fat” means?

While obesity is epidemic in almost every part of the world, “skinny fat” on the other hand is an underrated epidemic that only a few want to talk about. According to the medical description, “skinny fat” defines a person who is metabolically obese but weighs normal or below what is normal. In comparison to an obese person where the fat mostly builds up subcutaneously, thin people’s fat often develops viscerally, which means the fat envelopes at the vital organs – relatively a huge problem for “skinny fat” that could be dangerous to health. If you are currently slim but still thrive to maintain a diet to become even thinner, below are the top two reasons why you should stop your current goal and should start gaining weight:

Reason #1: High risk of heart disease

Although it is uncommon for slim people to develop heart disease, several types of research have proven that even thin people are at high risk of developing heart diseases. Disregard the stereotyping, most slim people often neglect to eat a balanced diet because of the perception they are healthy. Due to poor eating habit and poor diet, developing visceral fat is highly possible.

Reason #2: High risk of diabetes

One of the most common health issues that skinny fat people are at risk is developing diabetes. In fact, according to a study done in the University of Florida, one-third of Americans that are slim have pre-diabetes, where it is the primary stage of diabetes.

How do you know if you are “skinny fat”?

  • You always feel light-headed and dizzy after a few activities
  • Your body composition analysis result shows your subcutaneous fat is less than your visceral fat
  • You always feel weak
  • Even slim, you have an excess belly fat How to avoid being skinny fat?
  1. Eat healthy food and never skip meals

Every meal is important, however, you need to eat only those with high protein, calories, and carbohydrates to have a faster weight gain. Also, do not skip meals; skipping meals can lead to decreased appetite.

  1. Take necessary supplement

If you want to increase your weight fast and effective, you need to take natural appetite stimulant. These types of supplements will help you increase your appetite and gain weight.

  1. Always manage your stress

Stress is one of the main reasons of weight decrease; according to several experts, stress can reduce your strength and your appetite. So, if you want to gain weight, why not try to manage your stress efficiently. Being slim does not mean you are healthy. If you want to avoid the dangers of being thin, try managing your diet, your daily activities, and always stay happy.

A Closer Look at Biovy Nervasil Dietary Supplement

Dietary, food, or nutritional supplements are products that are starting to make a name in the world. That is because people today are becoming more conscious of the things that they consume because of the many diseases that are already manifesting themselves. These products are known to contain natural ingredients that are why they have not been approved as a therapeutic alternative. They are only responsible for helping the body produce or increase the production of certain nutrients.

Nerve-related pain like a tension headache, muscle spasm, and the likes are becoming common because of the stressful life that we have today. Most of us work eight to ten hours a day, some sit on their cubicles at such period, and others are in front of the computer monitors. These situations can sometimes reduce the proper functioning of the nervous system and at times, damage the nerves or cells in the system. Hence, some manufacturers have started producing supplements that target the nervous system.

One company, Biovy, has introduced their own nerve pain supplement that is said to promote natural nervous system growth, repair, and function. With that in mind, we will look at it in detail and see why the company claims such.

Biovy Nervasil Dietary Supplement

This dietary supplement is packaged in a tightly sealed and puncture-resistant 2 x 2 x 3 inches plastic bottle. It contains 120 capsules and is recommended to be taken twice a day with two capsules each. Nonetheless, it is strongly precautioned that pregnant and lactating women should not take this. Likewise, those with underlying conditions and consuming other medications should consult their physicians before even popping this supplement in their mouths.

Components

Ingredient-wise, it contains the necessary compounds needed by the nervous system. Such include Vitamin B complex, magnesium, inositol, benfotiamine, alpha lipoic acid (ALA), and acetyl L-Carnitine (ALC). The manufacturer also incorporated some plant-based extracts or powder like Chinese skullcap and the mushroom Lion’s Mane which have been used for centuries as herbal medicines.

The most interesting fact about this supplement is that all the ingredients have been formulated carefully by licensed doctors. Meaning, the amount of each content is at a level wherein it is safe for consumption and to prevent interaction between one another. Likewise, the capsule used to enclose the active ingredients is also made of natural elements namely rice flour and vegetable cellulose.

Consumer Safety and Satisfaction

This dietary supplement for nerves is manufactured in a well-maintained facility that strictly follows Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specified standards and guidelines. In addition, to ensure their client’s satisfaction, this product comes with a 100% money-back, no-questions-asked guarantee offer.

Final Thoughts

Being a known dietary supplement manufacturer that uses quality ingredients and strict quality assurance procedures, the Biovy Nervasil is something that people should consider to maintain a healthy nervous system. This, however, should not be taken by individuals who have special conditions. Likewise, it should not serve as a replacement for any nerve conditions that need serious medical treatment plans or procedures.

Natural Pain Relief

Most people would eventually seek out the help of non-steroidal inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, for the relief of any type of pain. An example of this would be aspirin, which is not only anti-inflammatory but is also an anti-coagulant, which has a side effect of bleeding tendencies. Others would opt for an ibuprofen or acetaminophen, such as an Advil or Tylenol. There are millions and millions of users for these kinds of pain relief drugs and billions are buying and using them over-the-counter. They tend to settle for these drugs for the relief of pain. Unfortunately, they do not provide long-term effects and when taken for a significantly longer duration, other negative effects may start to arise.

Pharmaceutical drugs that are recommended and prescribed for pain relief can be as effective as they claim but not as safe as they should be. Some of these drugs can be very enticing considering the way they are advertised. The unfortunate truth about some of these pain relievers is the fact that they can be effective in the relief of pain but the side effects of prolonged intake and failure to follow recommended dosage can be deadly. Fortunately enough, there are natural ways and supplements that can be of great help in the relief of pain without worrying too much about the negative effects.

For pain that is somehow manageable at home, it is highly recommended to try out some home remedies as natural ways to provide relief to the pain. Among the most effective ones is the application of ice. The ice is an effective and highly regarded remedy for pain, most especially during the first hours of an injury or any other cause of pain happened. The recommended for the application of ice as a pain relief home remedy is icing the area for around 10 to 15 minutes, which can be done at least four times in a day. This is most effective during the first 48 hours of pain.

After the application of cold, you can apply warmth afterwards. The heat has the capacity to help provide relief to pain and dilate the blood vessels. The dilation can enhance the flow of blood to the affected area, and with blood comes the nutrients and other elements of the human body that can help relieve pain and reduce inflammation.

Aside from the application of coldness and warmth, which is generally short term, there are natural pain relief supplements that can be effective in addressing pain, whatever intensity and no matter how long it had been. These products may seem like those pharmaceutical medications because they are taken like pills or tablets, however, with supplements, you are ensured of natural ingredients and agents as pain relievers.

 

The best natural supplement is the one that contains the most effective ingredients that nature can provide in the relief of pain. One of these components is fish oil, turmeric, chives, ginger, and certain herbs, such as green tea and holy basil. Learn more about natural pain relief supplements through the internet.

 

All About Constipation: Symptoms and Treatment

Constipation is a condition when the person finds it hard to empty one’s bowels. This is accompanied by hard stools, causing pain during bowel movement. With constipation, the person only has few bowel movements in a week; around three times only or even less.

Constipation is a very common problem. In fact, everyone experiences this at some point in their life. In U.S.’ it has affected 42 million people, with more chances of experiencing when one turns 65 years old. Women are also more prone to constipation than men, at around 2-3 times. Causes There are many causes of constipation and among these are as follows:

  • Unbalanced gut
  • Certain medications
  • Excess intake of supplemental calcium, supplements iron, sugar and unhealthy fats.
  • Lifestyle

Certain activities help avoid the chances of becoming constipated. If you live a sedentary lifestyle and do not get enough physical activity during the day then you will most likely experience constipation. Lack of fiber in one’s diet, low magnesium level, and inadequate water intake may also lead to constipation problem.

How to manage constipation

The most effective way to address constipation is to analyze why such bowel movement issue happened in the first place. If you have low magnesium level, then take Magnesium supplements. Do you know that probiotics for constipation are also effective? These are good bacteria that optimize the health of your gut. It works by causing acidity. And since during constipation, your gastrointestinal tract is very alkaline, turning it the around way around will resolve the issue. Aside from probiotics, it also helps to increase the fiber in your diet. This can be vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans, and seeds. Increase your water intake. Meaning, 8 glasses per day will never be enough. Lemon tea, broth or other forms of warm liquid can also help solve constipation.

To prevent your constipation from worsening, make sure that you are taking the right diet. Avoid processed foods, alcohol and deep fried foods since they will only exacerbate your condition. Doing a regular exercise will also help and master stress-relieving activities.

If you follow the suggested points above, you will less likely suffer constipation. Obviously, no one wants to go through such experience. But it pays to know in advance how to manage constipation and know why this happens in the first place. Bowel movement is necessary and must be done on a regular basis. Compacted feces will eventually harden the stools. Hence, you must address such issue once and for all.

Famous Celebrities with Amazingly High IQs

People rarely expect movie idols to have high IQs. This prejudice may be partly a result of the way media always blows up the foibles and ridiculous events of their lives while failing to mention what they have achieved in the brains department. Some are even members of MENSA, a society which requires members to score at least 132 on the Stanford-Binet IQ test.

Here are some famous celebrities who may give you a mild shock when you find out that they have a lot going for them between the ears. Moreover, if you want to be like these celebrities and sharpen your IQ, here’s a good uridine supplement you could try that has been proven highly effective in improving a person’s IQ and fluid intelligence.

  • Jodie Foster

At 13, Jody Foster won her first Academy Award nomination for playing a child prostitute in “Taxi Driver”. Later, she was a recipient of an Oscar trophy for her performance as a rape victim in “The Accused”, and another one for her stellar performance as FBI Agent Clarice Starling in “Silence of the Lambs”. Her career has included multiple awards and successful stints as both director and producer. Few people know that she graduated magna cum laude from Yale with a bachelor’s degree, nd that she has an IQ of 132.

This colorful personality whose career has spanned three decades is known for constantly reinventing herself with controversial performances. She was a straight A student in high school, had a dance scholarship to the University of Michigan, and an IQ of 140.

  • Steve Martin

Known for his funny roles in “Father of the Bride”, “Leap of Faith”, “Cheaper by the Dozen”, “Pink Panther”, and many more. Steve Martin once considered the more serious career path of teaching Philosophy. He majored in Philosophy at CalState and is said to have an IQ of 142.

  • James Woods

With his IQ of 180, James Woods was able to get a full scholarship to MIT. However, he is one of the famous celebrities who gave up formal schooling for acting.

  • Dolph Lundgren

Famous for brawny roles, Dolph Lundgren is not at all the nerdy type. However, this 6’5″ 240 pound martial arts icon has an IQ of 160, which made it possible for him to acquire a degree in chemistry from Washington State University, a degree in chemical engineering from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, plus a Master’s Degree in Chemical Engineering from University of Sydney, and a Fulbright scholarship to MIT.

  • Quentin Tarantino

No one can deny the creative genius Quentin Tarantino, the high school dropout who created masterpieces like “Inglourious Basterds”, “Pulp Fiction”, and “Kill Bill”. Evidently, these works were products not of school but his 160 IQ. Tarantino is a member of MENSA.

  • Sharon Stone

People still remember Stone’s performance in “Basic Instinct”, a movie which gave her a reputation for a star who could put a lot of steam in a scene. Stone, apart from being a dynamic actress was also a college freshman at the age of 15. With her IQ of 154, admission to MENSA was a sure thing.

Who would have thought these celebrities have IQs that qualify them for membership to MENSA? This certainly adds a new twist to the old saying, “Don’t judge a book by its cover”.

Watch Out for Kidney Bladder Infection in Older Adults

If a woman in her prime suffers from burning pain upon urination, a medical practitioner can almost certainly consider a prognosis of bladder infection or Urinary tract infection (UTI). If the patient is an elderly woman, the prognosis gets more complicated. The setting in of a bladder infection or a more serious kidney bladder infection can trigger behavioral changes, incontinence, and confusion. That’s the reason why people suffering from UTI are advised to check out this bladder control supplement to address the problem.

 

These kinds of infection are taken more seriously in geriatric cases especially for people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other dementia disorders. How can such infection lead to these complications among the elderly?

 

The kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra function together in the excretion of urine from the body. The blood is filtered in the glomerulus of each nephron in the kidneys to remove excess liquid, salt, and nitrogenous wastes. These unwanted components in the blood are passed into the urine through the ureters and stored in the urinary bladder until it is emptied through the urethra. This short tube is particularly shorter among women that make them more susceptible to UTI or cystitis. This infection can be triggered when harmful pathogens (disease-causing bacteria, fungi, and viruses) find their way into the urethra and proliferate there when conditions are conducive to their reproduction.

 

The infection can start in the urethra. Without treatment, the infection can cause acute or chronic infections that can spread to the bladder and kidneys; thus, kidney bladder infection or pyelonephritis. Some symptoms are upper back and flank pain, chills, blood in the urine, nausea, and vomiting. Severe UTI’s in women can lead to smelly vaginal discharges while it can lead to prostatitis or inflammation of the prostate in men. The rise in body temperature is a bad sign of severe infections. A worse turn of events can make UTI spread and trigger sepsis, a life-threatening infection of the blood.

The elderly are more vulnerable to UTIs and sepsis for several reasons. Having a compromised immune system due to the exposure to many immunosuppressant medications is one of the biggest reasons for this infection. Taking medications for various age-related diseases and disorders almost always lead to the weakening of the immune system not to mention the natural effects of age. The weakening of the muscles of the bladder caused by age leads to incontinence (poor control of bladder muscles) and incomplete emptying of the bladder that leads to UTIs.

 

Caregivers or home companions of the elderly must be cautious about signs and symptoms of modified behavior or changes in day-to-day patterns or routines. Unusual manifestations of incontinence, confusion, loss of appetite and other changes in behavior usually indicate urinary tract infection in older adults. These are important to note because frequently these changes are not given enough attention thinking that these just come with age. A prompt action entails immediate medical checkup, diagnosis, and treatment. Diagnosis is pretty straightforward; urinalysis is all it takes to confirm the infection. Such requires the oral administration of antibiotics which is the first line of treatment.

 

Kidney bladder infection among older adults is something that can be prevented. Early recognition of signs and symptoms is the key to the early treatment of the uncomplicated inflammation. Undue complications can only arise without prompt medication. Hence, any unusual change in the behavior or regular routine is something worth paying attention to.

Muscle-Building Foods and Supplements

Serious bodybuilders all agree that training hard is never enough to achieve greater muscle mass. Taking muscle-building supplements and having a balanced diet that’s right for your body and for your fitness goals are also must if you’re really aiming at building muscles.

 

So what are some of the best foods and supplements that should make it to a muscle builder’s meal? Read on so you’ll know which ones to pick for your next meals and snacks.

 

The first thing on the list is something that you’ll encounter in all health magazines and websites and hear from fitness experts all the time – an adequate amount of protein. You need to realize that building muscle mass is impossible without proper protein intake. If you’ll be calculating the nutrients in your every meal, you need to get at least 30 percent of calories on a regular basis coming from high-protein foods.

 

Among the common foods that are laden with the protein that you need to build muscles are beef, chicken and other poultry, fish, and eggs. Other sources that you should also consider including in your diet are nuts, beans, and seeds. If you love dairy, choose low-fat yogurt, milk, cottage cheese, and the like to add to your daily diet. Additionally, you can take an HMB supplement, which is known to increase lean muscle mass while reducing the amount of fat mass. What’s more, the supplement is known to help you recover faster from your workouts.

 

So you’ll be able to add pure protein without the added fats and sugars that most common foods have, you should think of taking supplements like protein shakes. These favorite muscle-building supplements of today effectively help in recovering and repairing your muscles instantly after workout sessions. Strenuous training programs can even be more challenging if you are not consuming enough protein. Thankfully, these shakes do an excellent job in meeting your needs.

 

You’ll usually find in health shops selling five different options according to the type of protein in the product, including whey, casein, egg, soy, and hemp. There are also blended protein shakes. To know which variant you should consume, check the ingredients and the type of protein that you most need or that you think will be most appropriate for your system. You may also eat whey or soy protein bars when you need quick snacks on the go.

 

Another useful reminder is for you to drink at least a liter of water per day. The workout can be physically exhausting, and being dehydrated can cause serious problems on your end. In addition, water makes your muscle look larger. It also pushes you to your limits, thus allowing you to build muscle faster.

Carbohydrates and fats are also important. So before going full gear and eating nothing but protein foods, keep in mind that carbs help your body maintain its energy. It gives you the motivation to train longer and that eventually leads you to positive results. Lifting heavier weights can be much easier if you have consumed enough carbs.

 

Meal replacement shakes are also good muscle-building supplements. However, this should only be taken if you’re having trouble getting all the carbs, protein, fats, and calories that you need.

There are really many good muscle-building supplements and foods out there. If you want to know which would be the best ones for you and your fitness goals, it would be ideal to get ideas from the experts – longtime bodybuilders, pieces of advice on reputable health magazines and websites, and even your physician.