|Analysis of Food-based Antioxidants|
|Apart from the refreshing taste and texture, watermelon provides a modest TAC of 140 units per 100 g, but this must be comprised mainly of 4.5 mg lycopene and 303 micrograms beta carotene, both carotenoids thought to be quality antioxidants.||While the fat content is high at 68%, most of it is unsaturated. Pine nuts provide a useful supply of manganese (8 mg/100 g), 4.3 mg/100 g niacin and 140 mg/100 g phytosterols|
|Therapeutic food-based antioxidants|
|Sources of proven therapies attributed to a food, or an individual antioxidant, or class of antioxidants may be only slowly accumulated. In the meantime, the general areas of interest will be surveyed. A start has been made below by listing examples of individual antioxidants which have a recognised association with a particular therapy:-|
|Antioxidant (type)||Rich sources from foods||Therapy|
|1. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (flavan-3-ol)||Teas (especially green and white teas), chocolate, grapes, berries, onions, red wine. Green tea extract used in this trial||chronic lymphocytic leukemia|
|Reference: Phase I Trial of Daily Oral Polyphenon E in Patients With Asymptomatic Rai Stage 0 to II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Tait D. Shanafelt, et al., J. Clin. Oncol., May 26 2009: doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.21.1284|
|2. Cyanidin (anthocyanin)||Plums, red/blue coloured berries||Obesity|
|Reference: OSU, Linus Pauling Institute|
|3. Quercetin (flavanol)||Onions, apples, tea, red wine||Cataracts, |
|Reference: Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK|
|4. Quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol||Large range of Berries|
(Quercetin also see above)
| Pancreatic cancer|
(kaempferol had greatest effect)
|Reference: U. Nothlings et al., Am. J. Epidemiol. 166, (8), 924-931, 2007|
|5. Lutein (carotenoids) |
|Green vegetables, egg yolks||Macular degeneration|
|Reference: J.M. Seddon, Am. J. Clin. Nut. 85, (1), 304S-307S, Jan. 2007|
|7. Pterostilbene (phenolic)||Blueberries, black grapes||Colon cancer|
|Reference: ACS Conference, 2007|
|8. Salicylic acid (organic acid)||Thyme, rosemary, oregano, paprika, raisins||Colon cancer|
|Reference: J. Paterson, G. Baxter, J. Lawrence and G. Duthie, Proc. Nut. Soc., (2006), 65, 93-96.|
|Therapeutic antioxidant-containing foods|
Broccoli and prostate cancer
Scientists at the IFR Norwich report in "Science Innovation" that ....
Men at risk of developing prostate cancer ate either 400g of broccoli or 400g of peas per week in addition to their normal diet over 12 months and the team found that there were more changes in gene expression in men on the broccoli-rich diet than on the pea diet; these changes may be associated with the reduction in the risk of developing cancer, already reported in epidemiological studies.
Publication: Maria Traka et al. (2008) Broccoli consumption interacts with GSTM1 to perturb oncogenic signalling pathways in the prostate. PLoS One
Tomato products and prostate cancer
In an extensive review of lycopene, tomato products where the processing may increase the bioavailability of lycopene (see Food preparation), were linked through epidemiological studies with prostate cancer therapy. Further evidence showed lycopene to be bioavailable, and to accumulate in prostate tissue.
R.B. van Breemen and N. Pajkovic, Cancer Letts., 269, 339-351, 2008.
Tomato extract and blood pressure
Single-blind, placebo-controlled, 31 subject trial found significant reductions in systolic and diastolic BP.
Y.N. Engelhard, et al., Am. Heart J., 151 (1) 100, 2006
|1. Glucosinolate breakdown products, isothiocyanates, especially sulforaphane appear to be effective against cancers in in vitro studies. |
2. Lutein and zeaxanthin (carotenoids) may act as general retinal antioxidants, and may reduce the incidence of cataract
| The American Institute of Cancer Research estimates that if the only dietary change made was to increase the daily intake of fruits and vegetables to 5 servings per day, cancer rates could decline by as much as 20%. |
return to >>>> Site map